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Yermolayev DB-240 (Yer-2) twin-engine long-range bomber A four-seat, all-metal monoplane with an inverted gull wing, a twin-fin tail, and a retractable landing gear system including a tail wheel. This plane was designed by OKB-240, under the direction of V. G. Yermolayev. The DB-240 was based on the Stal-7 passenger aircraft designed at the Civil Air Fleet Research Institute under the direction of R. L. Bartini. The DB-240 prototype got off the ground for the first time on May 14, 1940. Full-scale production of the aircraft, under the designation of Yer-2, was started in May 1941 at Voronezh Aircraft Factory No. 18. Originally, the DB-240 was designed with the promising M-106 liquid-cooled engines in mind. However, the development of the M-106 took longer than expected, and the designers urgently had to revise the whole project since the M-105 engines were less powerful and designed for lower altitudes but had already been launched into full-scale production. This forced replacement of the power unit significantly reduced the DB-240's combat capabilities, since its speed and altitude were noticeably decreased. Yer-2s of the first production series were equipped with 1,100 hp Klimov M-105 twelve-cylinder, V-shaped, liquid-cooled engines with three-bladed variable-pitch metal VISh-22Ye propellers. The aircraft's defensive armament included three turrets. One 7.62 mm ShKAS belt-fed machine gun with 500 rounds was hinged in the navigator's nose mount just like it had been on the DB-3F. A Mozharovsky-Venevidov LU-MV-2 hatch mount was fitted in the lower rear hatch between the 18th and the 21st frames. The mount was retracted in the fuselage when in the travelling position or extended before firing. A 7.62 mm ShKAS machine gun with an OP-2L optical sight and 1,075 rounds was mounted on a mobile carriage. The first production aircraft had Mozharovsky-Venevidov MV-3 turrets, with a 7.62 mm ShKAS machine gun featuring an OPT-1 sight and 1,200 rounds. Then, heavy TAT-VT turrets started to be delivered, and the light MV-3 turret was replaced with a heavy TAT-VT aerodynamic turret featuring a 12.7 mm Berezin BT machine gun with 400 rounds. The aircraft's bombing armament included two external Der-19-20 beams enabling it to suspend bombs weighing from 100 to 1,000 kg (FAB-100, FAB-250, FAB-500, FAB-1000, BRAB-220, BRAB-500, BRAB-1000, P-250). The fuselage bomb bay had inside a pair of KDZ-240 twin cluster bomb racks designed to suspend four FAB-250 or FAB-500 bombs, as well as four KD2-240 triple cluster bomb racks designed to suspend 12 FAB-50 or FAB-100 bombs. External suspension enabled the aircraft to carry two VAP-500 spray tanks or the same number of UKhAP-500 all-purpose chemical tanks to create smoke screens. Four ABK-240 bomb clusters could be suspended inside the bomb bay, with bomblets up to 15 kg or incendiary ampoules. The Yer-2's maximum bomb capacity for short distances was 4,000 kg (two FAB-1000s on the outside and four FAB-500s suspended inside).